Introducción a Nebula

Para celebrar este capítulo 200 vamos a tratar un tema muy interesante, hoy voy a hablaros de Nebula, un software que ha liberado Slack en github (

Los binarios los tenéis en

El software nos permite crear nuestra propia SDN sin tener que depender de servicios de terceros como puede ser el caso de una instalación estándar de Zero Tier .

El software es muy sencillito y os va a permitir levantar vuestra SDN simplemente con un yaml como este (os marco en negrita lo que hay que tocar):

This is the nebula example configuration file. You must edit, at a minimum, the static_host_map, lighthouse, and firewall sections
 Some options in this file are HUPable, including the pki section. (A HUP will reload credentials from disk without affecting existing tunnels)
 PKI defines the location of credentials for this node. Each of these can also be inlined by using the yaml ": |" syntax.
   # The CAs that are accepted by this node. Must contain one or more certificates created by 'nebula-cert ca'
   ca: /etc/nebula/ca.crt
   cert: /etc/nebula/servidor.crt
   key: /etc/nebula/servidor.key
   #blacklist is a list of certificate fingerprints that we will refuse to talk to
   #  - c99d4e650533b92061b09918e838a5a0a6aaee21eed1d12fd937682865936c72
 The static host map defines a set of hosts with fixed IP addresses on the internet (or any network).
 A host can have multiple fixed IP addresses defined here, and nebula will try each when establishing a tunnel.
 The syntax is:
 "{nebula ip}": ["{routable ip/dns name}:{routable port}"]
 Example, if your lighthouse has the nebula IP of and has the real ip address of and runs on port 4242:
   "": [""]
   # am_lighthouse is used to enable lighthouse functionality for a node. This should ONLY be true on nodes
   # you have configured to be lighthouses in your network
   am_lighthouse: true
   # serve_dns optionally starts a dns listener that responds to various queries and can even be
   # delegated to for resolution
   #serve_dns: false
   # interval is the number of seconds between updates from this node to a lighthouse.
   # during updates, a node sends information about its current IP addresses to each node.
   interval: 60
   # hosts is a list of lighthouse hosts this node should report to and query from
  #   - ""
 Port Nebula will be listening on. The default here is 4242. For a lighthouse node, the port should be defined,
 however using port 0 will dynamically assign a port and is recommended for roaming nodes.
   port: 4242
   # Sets the max number of packets to pull from the kernel for each syscall (under systems that support recvmmsg)
   # default is 64, does not support reload
   #batch: 64
   # Configure socket buffers for the udp side (outside), leave unset to use the system defaults. Values will be doubled by the kernel
   # Default is net.core.rmem_default and net.core.wmem_default (/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default and /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default)
   # Maximum is limited by memory in the system, SO_RCVBUFFORCE and SO_SNDBUFFORCE is used to avoid having to raise the system wide
   # max, net.core.rmem_max and net.core.wmem_max
   #read_buffer: 10485760
   #write_buffer: 10485760
 Punchy continues to punch inbound/outbound at a regular interval to avoid expiration of firewall nat mappings
 punchy: true
 punch_back means that a node you are trying to reach will connect back out to you if your hole punching fails
 this is extremely useful if one node is behind a difficult nat, such as symmetric
 punch_back: true
 Cipher allows you to choose between the available ciphers for your network.
 IMPORTANT: this value must be identical on ALL NODES/LIGHTHOUSES. We do not/will not support use of different ciphers simultaneously!
 cipher: chachapoly
 Local range is used to define a hint about the local network range, which speeds up discovering the fastest
 path to a network adjacent nebula node.
 local_range: ""
 sshd can expose informational and administrative functions via ssh this is a
 # Toggles the feature
   #enabled: true
   # Host and port to listen on, port 22 is not allowed for your safety
   # A file containing the ssh host private key to use
   # A decent way to generate one: ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f ssh_host_ed25519_key -N "" < /dev/null
   #host_key: ./ssh_host_ed25519_key
   # A file containing a list of authorized public keys
     #- user: steeeeve
       # keys can be an array of strings or single string
         #- "ssh public key string"
 Configure the private interface. Note: addr is baked into the nebula certificate
   # Name of the device
   dev: nebula1
   # Toggles forwarding of local broadcast packets, the address of which depends on the ip/mask encoded in pki.cert
   drop_local_broadcast: false
   # Toggles forwarding of multicast packets
   drop_multicast: false
   # Sets the transmit queue length, if you notice lots of transmit drops on the tun it may help to raise this number. Default is 500
   tx_queue: 500
   # Default MTU for every packet, safe setting is (and the default) 1300 for internet based traffic
   mtu: 1300
   # Route based MTU overrides, you have known vpn ip paths that can support larger MTUs you can increase/decrease them here
     #- mtu: 8800
     #  route:
 Configure logging level
   # panic, fatal, error, warning, info, or debug. Default is info
   level: info
   # json or text formats currently available. Default is text
   format: text
 #type: graphite
   #prefix: nebula
   #protocol: tcp
   #interval: 10s
 #type: prometheus
   #path: /metrics
   #namespace: prometheusns
   #subsystem: nebula
   #interval: 10s
 Nebula security group configuration
     tcp_timeout: 120h
     udp_timeout: 3m
     default_timeout: 10m
     max_connections: 100000
 # The firewall is default deny. There is no way to write a deny rule.
   # Rules are comprised of a protocol, port, and one or more of host, group, or CIDR
   # Logical evaluation is roughly: port AND proto AND ca_sha AND ca_name AND (host OR group OR groups OR cidr)
   # - port: Takes 0 or any as any, a single number 80, a range 200-901, or fragment to match second and further fragments of fragmented packets (since there is no port available).
   #   code: same as port but makes more sense when talking about ICMP, TODO: this is not currently implemented in a way that works, use any
   #   proto: any, tcp, udp, or icmp
   #   host: any or a literal hostname, ie test-host
   #   group: any or a literal group name, ie default-group
   #   groups: Same as group but accepts a list of values. Multiple values are AND'd together and a certificate would have to contain all groups to pass
   #   cidr: a CIDR, is any.
   #   ca_name: An issuing CA name
   #   ca_sha: An issuing CA shasum
     # Allow all outbound traffic from this node
     - port: any
       proto: any
       host: any
     # Allow icmp between any nebula hosts
     - port: any
       proto: any
       host: any

Foto de Tobias Bjørkli en Pexels


  1. No veo apenas documentación sobre cómo se configura la SDN, entiendo que al ser una versión 1.0 no hay un cliente de config via WEB. No localizo documentación de como separar la config de clientes y servidor y como dar de alta los clientes, parece que… ¿todo cliente que posea el certificado podrá entrar? ¿No hay reglas de firewall capa 2 como en Zerotier? Parece todo o demasiado abierto o sin información clara. Exclusivamente veo las notas informativas del archivo de config YAML…

    1. Hola,
      Sí, el cliente se define con el certificado y puedes bloquear el certificado cuando quieras, para hacerlo:

      root@sdn:/etc/nebula# ./nebula-cert print -path /etc/nebula/certificado_cliente.crt

      Fingerprint: 8fa3473ad618c829c0234897237867823462387468acacacafca2a28356232

      Y ahora con ese fingerprint vas a la config de nebula, al yaml y buscas blacklist:

      – 8fa3473ad618c829c0234897237867823462387468acacacafca2a28356232

      Es bastante fácil, pero sí, coincido contigo, la documentación es bastante mala, es lo que tienen las versiones 1.

      Dar de alta clientes es definir certificados. Y las reglas de firewall de nivel 2, no, no las he visto, hay un firewall, pero de nivel 3.

      Esto es una opción, zerotier es otra.

      Un saludo y mil gracias por el apunte, ha sido muy útil.

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